hwconfig -h        Displays the hardware configuration

swconfig        Displays the system contents database


hw            (5.0.4 and above) Display detailed hardware config.


fixmog -i    Checks all system files against file control database


isverify -I    Rebuild ISAM database after system restore, need when

        the following message is displayed :-

        "Error: Incorrect SCO Runtime System installed@


/etc/conf/cf.d/configure    Tune kernel parameters

/etc/conf/cf.d/link_unix    Relinks the kernel


asktime        Used to set the time and date.


/usr/adm/ISL/iqm_file    Contains serial number and activation key.


od (filename)        Octal dump of a file

hd (filename)        Hexadecimal dump of a file


custom        Menu for installing software

scoadmin    Administration menu (OSR5)

sysadmsh    Administration menu (


scologin disable    Disables graphical SCO login at startup (X)

scologin enables    Enables graphical SCO login at startup (X)






ttylock (tty)        Locks a named terminal

ttyunlock (tty)        Unlocks a locked terminal


enable (tty)        Turns on terminals

disable (tty)        Turns off terminals


To setup a serial console, add SYSTTY=x into /etc/default/boot.

(Where x is 0 is display adapter and 1 is comm 1 etc)






hostname        Displays hostname

hostname (hostname)    Sets the hostname until next reboot


tcp start    Starts TCP services

tcp stop    Stops TCP services


nfs start    Starts NFS services

nfs stop    Stops NFS services


netconfig    Menu for setting up network adapters









find (filesystem) -print | cpio -ocv > (filename or device)


eg find ./usr/ -print | cpio -ocv > /dev/rStp0





cpio -ict < (filename or device) | more        Lists archive

cpio -icdv < (filename or device)

cpio -icdv < (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")


eg cpio -icdv < /dev/rStp0 "tcpip/*"           Restore directory and contents

   cpio -icdv < /dev/rStp0 "*resolve.conf"    Restore a named file





tar -cvf (filename or device) ("files or directories to archive")


eg tar -cvf /dev/rStp0 "/usr/*"





tar -tvf (filename or device)             Lists archive


tar -xvf (filename or device)            Restore all

tar -xvf (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")

use -p option for restoring with orginal permissions

use -A option for suppressing absolute file pathes        #djn 5_01


eg tar -xvf /dev/rStp0 "tcpip"            Restore directory and contents

   tar -xvf /dev/rStp0 "tcpip/resolve.conf"    Restore a named file




                TAPE DRIVES



/dev/xct0    Cartridge tape controller

/dev/erct0    Error correcting cartridge tape

/dev/nrct0    No rewind cartridge tape

/dev/rct0    Cartridge tape

/dev/rStp0    SCSI tape

/dev/rctmini    Mini catridge tape

/dev/rft0    QIC40 floppy tape


Cartridge         rct0 nrct0 xct0

SCSI cartridge or DAT    rStp0 nrStp0 xStp0

Mini cartridge        rctmini nrctmini xctmini


/dev/r        Rewinds on closing

/dev/nr        No rewind on closing

/dev/x        Control file used by the tape command, cannot be used for data


tape reten (device)    Retension the tape

tape rewind (device)    Rewind the tape

tape erase (device)    Erase the tape

tape status (device)    Is there a tape in the drive ?

tape unload (device)    Eject a tape

tape getblk (device)    Reads and reports the block size of the tape


tape -a (new block size) setblk (device)    Sets the block size


If no device used the will use default in tape     /etc/defaults/tape


dtype (device)    Reports what type of data is on the devices (cpio, tar etc)



                PRINT QUEUES



lpstat -t

lpstat -a        Will display "text message"


reject (pqueue)        Stops requests being placed in the queue

accept (pqueue)        Enables requests to be placed in the queue


reject -r "text message" (pqueue)


disable (pqueue)    Halts the queue, request will still be accepted

enable (pqueue)        Enables the queue afte being halted


disable -r "text message" (pqueue)


/usr/lib/lpshut        Stop the print sheduler

/usr/lib/lpsched    Start the print sceduler


cancel (job id)        Cancel a job that is queuing


lp -i (job id) -H hold        Hold a job

lp -i (job id) -H resume    Cancel the hold on a job

lp -i (job id) -H immediate    Promote a job within a queue

lp -i (job id) -d(pqueue)    Move a job between queues


$LPDEST        Default queue variable


/etc/printcap        Config file for print queues

/usr/spool/lp        Contains local printers

/usr/spool/lpd        Contains remote printers



                HARD DRIVES



dkinit            Displays non scsi disk details


scsibadblk    Scans for bad tracks on disk

badtrk        As as scsibadblk


fdisk            Divides a hard disk into partitions

fdisk -p        Displays partion information

fdisk -p -f (device)    Displays partion information for named device

fdisk -p -f /dev/rhd00



                FILE SYSTEMS



HTFS    High Throughput filesystem

    2 gig max file size

    1 tera max file system size

    1k block size

    Not bootable


DTFS    Desktop filesystem

    2 gig max file size

    1 tera max file system size

    512 byte to 4k block size

    Not bootable


EAFS    Extended Acerfile file system

    2 gig max file size

    2 gig max file system size

    1k block size

    Bootable and default


AFS, S51K, XENIX <- Other bootable filesystems


divvy            Divides disk partions into divisions for filesystems

divvy -N -P        Displays division information

divvy -N -P (device)    Displays division information for 2nd disk drive

divvy -N -P /dev/hd1a


fstyp (device eg /dev/root)    Displays filesystem type


/dev/root    Boot filesystem (/stand)


/dev/root    Root filesystem (/)

/dev/swap    Swap space


fsck (device)    Verify a file system, the file system must be unmounted,

        except the /dev/root filesystem, you must be in single user

        mode (init 1) or have booted from boot/root.


fsck -o full (device)    Forces a full fsck.

fsck -y (device)    Pre-answer questions either yes or no !

fsck -bs (device)    Will recreate superblock


mkdev fs        Screen for Creating and deleting filesystems


mount                  Lists all the mounted filesystems

mount (fs or device)    Mounts a named filesystem

mountall         Mounts all filesystems

mount -r -f ISO9660 -o lower /dev/cd0 /miscd   # mounts a standard cd


fuser -u (/mount point)    Lists who is using the filesystem



                SWAP SPACE



swap -l        Lists swap space and useage.






kernel        Will display path and name of the kernel used to boot system


mount /dev/hd0root /mnt        Mounts root filesystem over /mnt when you

                have booting from boot/root floppies.


mount /dev/boot /mnt/stand    Mounts boot filesystem.


Boot: hd(40)unix    Boot floppy, load kernel from hard drive.

            Used when /boot not found error


Boot: fd(64)unix root=hd(40) swap=hd(41)    Unix from floppy, mount root

                        filesystems on hard disk.


Boot: unix.old        Load the previous version of the kernel

            (Must be in /stand {/dev/boot} directory)


Boot: dir        Displays whats in /stand (/dev/boot)


Boot: bootos ?        Lists partitions

Boot: bootos 4        Boot from a non-active partition


Boot: defbootstr btld=fd(61) link=alad325 Sdsk=alad(0,0,0,0)


    btld Boot time loadable driver can be found at fd(61) b: drive,

         defaults to fd(60) a: if not present.

    link Uses driver alad325 from device specified in btld, driver

         disks are unix filesystem disks.

    Sdsk Device to use the boot time loadable driver with :-

        alad is for the controller,

           0 is host adapter

           0 is bus on the adapter

           0 is drive scsi id

           0 is LUN






crontab -l            List out crontab entrys

crontab -e            Edit crontab entrys

crontab -l > (filename)        Output crontab entrys to a file

crontab (filename)        Enter a crontab from a file

crontab -r            Removes all crontab entrys

crontab -v            Displays crontab submission time.


/usr/lib/cron/cron.allow        File containing users allowed crontab use.

/usr/lib/cron/cron.deny         File containing users denied crontab use.

/usr/spool/cron/crontabs    Directory containing users crontabs


at (now + 2 minutes, 13:05, etc) {return}    Schedule a job using at

Command or schell script {return}



at -l               


at -r (at job No)


/usr/lib/cron/at.allow        File containing users allowed at use.

/usr/lib/cron/at.deny        File containing users denied at use.

/usr/spool/cron/atjobs        Directory contains users at jobs






chmod abcd (filename)    Changes files/directory permissions


Where a is  (4 SUID) + (2 SGID)  + (1 SVTX)

      b is  (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute)  permissions for owner

      c is  (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute)  permissions for group

      d is  (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute)  permissions for others



 -rwxrwxrwx   -rwxrwxrwx   -rwxrwxrwx

  |||             |||             |||

   -               -               -

   |               |               |

 Owner           Group           Others


 -rwSrwxrwx = SUID   -rwxrwSrwx = SGID   drwxrwxrwt = SVTX



chown (new owner) (filename)    Changes file/directory owners

chgrp (new group) (filename)    Changes file/directory groups


umask                Displays umask settings

umask abc            Changes users umask settings


where ( 7 - a = new file read permissions)

      ( 7 - b = new file write permissions)

      ( 7 - c = new file execute permissions)


eg umask 022 = new file permissions of 755 = read write and execute for owner  

                                             read ----- and execute for group

                                             read ----- and execute for other


passwd            Change current user password

passwd -l (user)    Lock a users account

passwd -u (user)    Unlock a users account


goodpw        Test to see if a passwd is acceptable.


pwck        Checks /etc/passwd file for inconsistencies

grpck        Checks /etc/group file for inconsistencies






env        Displays values of environment variables


id         Displays current user's uid and gid details

id (user)    Displays user uid and gid details


who        Displays details of all users currently logged in.



quot (filesystem)    Displays disk useage by user




userdel            (Note does not remove home dir)



userls -l (username)




groupls            Lists what groups you are in.

groupls (username)

groupls -a        Lists all groups









passwd (username)



unretire (username)    To reactivate a retired user



            INIT RUN LEVELS



init (run level)      Switches run levels


0    Shutdown

1    Single user

2,3,4    Multiuser

6    Reboot






shutdown -g(number)    grace period before starting shutdown

         -y        answer y to all further questions

         -i(number)    shutdown to run level


shutdown -y -g0 -i1    To shutdown to single user mode

shutdown -y -g0 -i6    To shutdown and reboot system.


who -b        Displays when the machine was last booted

who -r        Displays what the current run level is




                             SERIAL PORTS



com1 = /dev/tty1a (terminal/getty) or /dev/tty1A (dial out modem)

com2 = /dev/tty2a (terminal/getty) or /dev/tty2A (dial out modem)


enable /dev/tty1a    Enables the getty on /dev/tty1a

disable /dev/tty1a    Disables the getty on /dev/tty1a

(above edits both /etc/inittab and /etc/conf/init.d/sio files)





/etc/conf/init.d/sio    Contains the defaults for the serial part of inittab.

            Will recreate inittab from this when the environment

            is rebuilt using link_unix.



                             ERROR LOGGING










sar (delay) (repeats)


options :-


-r    Displays amount of free memory and free swap

-d    Displays disk and tape activity

-b    Displays buffer activity

-u    Displays cpu useage


swap -l        Displays swap details and useage


/etc/conf/cf.d/configure -x    Displays kernel parameters




                              FLOPPY DRIVES



 48ds9        360Kb        5.25 inch

 96ds15        1.2Mb        5.25 inch

135ds9        720Kb        3.5 inch

135ds18        1.44Mb        3.5 inch

135ds36        2.88Mb        3.5 inch

 | | |

 | | +------ sectors per track

 | +-------- ds = double sided

 +---------- tracks per inch


/dev/rfd0135ds18 = floppy disk 0 3.5" 1.44Mb


format        Formats disk for use.


mkdev fs    Screen for creating root/boot disks or floppy filesystems


diskcp        Disk to disk copy

diskcp -f    Disk to disk copy with format first.



                              DOS DISKETTES






dosdir        List dos directories in dos dir style

dosdir /dev/fd0 or dosdir a:


dosls        List dos directories in unix ls style


dosformat    Format a dos floppy


dosmkdir    Create a dos directory

dosrmdir    Remove a dos directory




dtox (in file) > (out file)    Dos to unix ascii file conversion

xtod (in file) > (out file)    Unix to dos ascii file conversion